In general, children have been spared the worst of COVID-19’s effects so far. After clinical remission of the original infection and viral clearance, many children have reported long-term or chronic weariness, headache, numbness, sadness, altered smell and taste, or poor appetite.
While existing COVID-19 vaccinations minimize the chance of severe and fatal COVID-19 outcomes, they may not be able to totally prevent long COVID in the event of breakthrough infection. As a result, the current study looks at long term COVID in children to better understand how it affects this patient population.
The fundamental mechanisms that cause extended COVID are unknown, and there is limited information on which organs are most commonly affected.
The current study investigates the effect of nutrition in SARS-CoV-2 immunity, both during acute sickness and in the long-term consequences. A lack of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant elements in the diet could be one explanation. This could imply that a patient’s diet is deficient in immunomodulation and antiviral action, predisposing them to a worsening of symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Fermented cabbage and other Brassica vegetables were found to be staples in populations with very low COVID-19 mortality rates. Another group of theories connected vitamin D, zinc, selenium, and magnesium deficiency to more severe COVID-19 forms and/or greater fatality rates. These results suggest that nutritional treatment for COVID-19 patients may have a significant influence on lowering inflammation and oxidative stress.
Furthermore, augmenting these substances could prevent tissue damage while also preventing intestinal dysbiosis by inhibiting viral replication, reducing clotting tendencies, and protecting host cells from injury caused by SARS-CoV-2. Disease severity, as well as cytokines, inflammatory chemicals, tissue injury biomarkers, and the presence of persistent symptoms, are all indicators of gut dysbiosis.
Vitamin B complex is important for energy metabolism, as well as nucleic acid and protein synthesis. These vitamins, which are also important for immune control, are cofactors for numerous mitochondrial and protein enzymes, have antioxidant properties, and help to modulate inflammatory pathways.
Neuropathy and neuroinflammation are caused by thiamine (B1) deficiency, while B6 in its active form is depleted during inflammation. B12 (cobalamine) is a glutathione-sparing antioxidant that removes reactive oxygen species (ROS) from tissues while also regulating cytokine levels. Endothelial function is improved by methyl folate.
These vitamins are also vital for the gut microbiome’s health when taken together. Their consumption, in combination with vitamin D and magnesium, has been linked to COVID-19 clinical mildness. Vitamin D affects the immunological response, and appropriate levels of the vitamin in plasma are linked to a lower risk of infection.
Vitamin D has been shown to lower COVID-19-related mortality in hospitalized patients by protecting these patients from the disease’s pulmonary and endothelial damage. Vitamin D may help protect the gut from dysbiosis and prevent autoimmune disorders linked to SARS-CoV-2. These researchers believe that daily supplementation, rather than monthly dose, is more preferable.
Vitamin C, like Vitamin E, is an important antioxidant that plays a role in energy metabolism and a variety of biosynthetic pathways, including those that produce neurotransmitters. Vitamin C is also a crucial component in immunity, and a lack of it is linked to fatigue, discomfort, and mental confusion.
Magnesium is the most common divalent cation in cells, and it plays a critical role in cell division and differentiation. This mineral is necessary for cardiac function and vascular tone, as well as for avoiding vasoconstriction and clotting, and atherosclerosis.
Magnesium deficiency can cause hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and low-grade inflammation by affecting hundreds of pathways in the body. The weariness and muscle soreness associated with lengthy COVID may be related to oxidative stress caused by low magnesium levels.
Low magnesium levels’ platelet adhesion and aggregation effects could also be to blame for the microthrombotic consequences of this illness. Finally, its insufficiency has an effect on vitamin D’s biological availability and action. Magnesium, selenium, and coenzyme Q10 supplementation, on the other hand, enhanced thyroid structure and function, which is noteworthy given the prevalence of thyroiditis as a symptom of protracted COVID in some individuals.
Selenium also has a variety of biological activities, including as reducing ROS levels and modulating stress-induced inflammatory pathways. This not only avoids hyper-inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it also has the potential to limit the formation of ROS-induced viral alterations that improve viral pathogenicity.
Selenium shortage can be fatal, as evidenced by the famed Keshan illness in China; however, supplementation may help to alleviate these problems. Selenium improves thyroid and gut microbiota function, as well as possibly mental wellness.
Zinc supplementation is particularly significant because it is a component of hundreds of transcription factors and thousands of enzymes, as well as mediating cellular signaling. Zinc is also required for growth and development, as well as for DNA production and RNA transcription. Zinc also decreases oxidative stress and affects immunity by encouraging the development of T- and B-cells.
Zinc deficiency has been associated to autoimmune disease, endothelial dysfunction, and an increase in T-helper Th17 cells, all of which can make people more prone to inflammation.
Phytochemicals are expected to be effective in reducing hyper-inflammatory reactions and autoimmunity by decreasing viral multiplication and the host response to SARS-CoV-2. These compounds attach to SARS-CoV-2 particles both outside and inside the cell, inhibiting receptor binding as well as virion proliferation and secretion from the infected cell.
In addition to preventing platelet activation and thrombosis, most phytochemicals help to keep heart rhythms stable. Resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin, and sulforaphane are among the most studied phytochemicals.
The authors emphasize that measuring the quantities of these possibly protective nutraceuticals is critical to determining their genuine role in SARS-CoV-2 immunity and future waves.
Supplementation with these compounds appears to be a sensible strategy to help these people find some alleviation from their symptoms in the lack of any effective treatment for chronic COVID.
But as many studies have shown that supplementation may not be better than eating a balanced diet, experts recommend eating Mushrooms, Spinach, Cruciferous vegetables that are rich in nutrients, including several carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin); vitamins C, E, and K; folate; and minerals.
They also are a good fiber source.
Cruciferous vegetables include Broccoli, Kale, Cauliflower, Wasabi, collard greens, kale, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts.
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